Journal of Arboriculture 6, 309–314. Gauthier When trees are stressed, they are much more susceptible to insect pests. J.K. Dunn 2011). R.A. Mattson V. D.A. 1997), all of which were considered to have weakened host resistance and thus dramatically increased the availability of susceptible hosts. H.F. Safford Still, some of the common stresses of urban landscape sites, such as soil compaction, de-icing salts, and lawn-care herbicides can also contribute to the sub-optional growth conditions that favor attack by the bronze birch borer. 1991). C. Liebhold It is also an important pest of landscape birches (figure 2). J. 2011), increased parasitism of alternate hosts such as bronze birch borer and other native buprestids may occur. Agric. Muilenburg J.J. Depending on the temperature, region, and host, the life cycle of A. anxius can be one or two years; colonies in warmer climates typically show a one-year life cycle while those in colder regions often have a two-year cycle (Katovich et al).Insect development is hastened with increased stress level of the host. D.F. Furthermore, the high susceptibility of Eurasian species to bronze birch borer coupled with climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia where Betula species exist, suggest that if bronze birch borer were inadvertently introduced to Europe or Asia, there may be a high risk of establishment, spread, and birch mortality on a continental scale (EPPO 2011, Økland et al. Arp Species native to North America, such as paper birch and gray birch, are highly resistant to bronze birch borer and are grown successfully in urban forests and ornamental landscapes without substantial management inputs (Nielsen et al. G.L. It has been hypothesized that both chemical and physical mechanisms, of which many could be constitutively expressed, induced, or both, by larval feeding, may play a role (Herms 1991, Muilenburg 2010). Duan Small (1.5 by 0.75 mm), white to cream-colored, oval-shaped eggs are oviposited singly or in clusters of up to 14 under flakes of outer bark and in bark cracks and crevices (Hutchings 1923, Barter 1957, Loerch and Cameron 1984). 1997). Bronze birch borer is not known to be present outside its native range in North America. (1997) proposed that large scale episodes of birch decline and mortality were a function of a shared history. 1999, Iverson and Prasad 2001). Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) Westcott For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. J.C. Lindroth Adult A. anxius emerge in early summer and live three weeks. McCullough C.P.-A. What is the bronze birch borer? Johnson Keinanen Mroz J.P. They live for three weeks and feed on birch foliage. Reed 1993, Darbah et al. J. Miller Mature stands were stressed because of droughts and high temperatures (Jones et al. Ylioja Upon hatching, neonates immediately bore through the outer bark where they feed primarily on phloem and outer xylem. Helson P.B. Nielsen U.S. Dep. T. Pugh M. Outbreaks consistently have followed large-scale stress events such as drought and high temperatures (e.g., Balch and Prebble 1940, Jones et al. P.L. J.W. The high susceptibility of these Eurasian species (Nielsen et al. However, in more resistant North American species (Nielsen et al. Bronze birch borer; (bottom) tunnel damage. Most are saproxylic, depending on dead or dying trees for development (Speight 1989, Grove 2002), but some, including many species in the genus Agrilus, colonize living trees (Bright 1987, Solomon 1995, Evans et al. The final caudal segment terminates in a pair of sclerotized, tooth-like styles that are characteristic of Agrilus spp. G.H. Bronze Birch borer treatment. Rebek Gao Cattelino 2010), which is a congener of bronze birch borer. The larvae of the bronze birch borer cause extensive damage across the birch range areas of the United States and Canada. Ball J & Simmons G (1980) The relationship between bronze birch borer and birch dieback. Schnurr Pajares Adult emergence begins in May in Kentucky (Mussey and Potter 1997); May or June in Ohio and Michigan (Akers and Nielsen 1984, Herms 2004); and late June or early July in New Brunswick, Canada (Balch and Prebble 1940, Barter 1957). Jones Which white birches are least susceptible to bronze birch borer? Bronze birch borers are iridescent and bronze colored. The biology and ecology of the twolined chestnut borer, Field guide to common insect pests of urban trees in the Northeast, Aspects of yellow birch dieback in Nova Scotia, Investigations of yellow birch dieback in Nova Scotia in 1947, Variation in resource allocation patterns of paper birch: evidence for physiological tradeoffs among growth, reproduction and defense, Strategies for deployment of insect resistant ornamental plants, Mechanisms and deployment of resistance in trees to insects, Effects of fertilization on insect resistance of woody ornamental plants: reassessing an entrenched paradigm, Understanding the biology and management of wood-borers, Part I: flatheaded borers. J. Mature larvae construct pupal cells in the wood just beneath the bark in which they overwinter and pupate in the fall or following spring. Bronze Birch Borers c.) Miners: i.) Gould The adults emerge in early June and are visible until early August. D.A. Velling M. Serpentine ridges frequently are visible externally on the bark surface and result from growth of wound periderm over larval galleries. 1991, Nielsen et al. Males are typically three-eighths of an inch long, while females are slightly larger, stretching about one-half inch. M.L. Agric. Bloese Due to susceptibility to bronze birch borer (BBB), European white birch is not recommended for planting anywhere in this region and usually require removal and/or replacement. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. This tree has an attractive pendulous habit. S.L. The bronze birch borer occurs throughout the range of birches in Canada from Newfoundland to British Columbia but is most common in the southern portion of the provinces. J. Other symptoms of bronze birch borer infestation include sprouting at the base of the trunk and damage to trunk and branches caused by woodpeckers as they excavate larvae. Tree defoliation is negligible (Britton 1923). The trigger itself is not the sole causal agent of dieback, but rather a secondary or tertiary factor that occurs in synchrony with intrinsic stand factors (e.g., maturation) (Mueller-Dombois 1986, Auclair et al. Herms exit hole through the bark. 1994). Minnemeyer Search for other works by this author on: Spatial emergence pattern of bronze birch borer, (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from Eur. forests (Barter 1965, Carlson and Knight 1969) have been associated with stress events such as drought and defoliation that weaken host defenses. R.E. Today, this borer often contributes to mortality of woodland birch during severe drought or other stress. Dissection of these galleries frequently reveals dead larvae encapsulated within wound periderm tissue (V.L.M. 2011). Duan For commercial re-use, please contact email@example.com, Spatio-Temporal Model for Predicting Spring Hatch of the Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), Effects of Larval Population Density and Food Type on the Life Cycle of, Conventional Soil Management May Promote Nutrients That Lure an Insect Pest to a Toxic Crop, About the Entomological Society of America, fhm.fs.fed.us/posters/posters10/biosurveillance_buprestidae.pdf, www.aspensite.org/FTP/Colorado_insects_Feed_Trees.pDf, http://agr.mt.gov/agr/Programs/PestMgt/CAPS/CAPSx09_report.pdf, http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRAdocs_insects/11-16987_PRA_record_Agrilus_anxius.doc, http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/publications/E-50.pdf, http://www.emeraldashborer.info/files/Multistate_EAB_Insecticide_Fact_Sheet.pdf, http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/nr/fid/health/2003highlights-or.pdf, http://plantpathology.uark.edu/annual_clinic_report_2008.doc, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. 1.2. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is native to China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Russia, and Taiwan. 2011, Økland et al. N. L.O. Why: The NPPO of Norway recently suggested that Agrilus anxius (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – bronze birch borer) could usefully be added to the EPPO Alert List.A. 1951, Barter 1957, Loerch and Cameron 1983b, Taylor et al. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. D.D. R.S. The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) recently completed a comprehensive Pest Risk Assessment (PRA) that measured the risk of introduction of bronze birch borer to Europe. G.  Gray birch has been commonly planted as a landscaping tree in southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey as it tolerates heat and humidity better than paper birch and is more resistant to bronze birch borers and leaf miners . McNiel D.E. mining by larvae of the bronze birch borer. Sadof and D.A.H., unpublished data). Webb exist, suggest a high risk of establishment and spread throughout Eurasia if bronze birch borer were to be inadvertently introduced (EPPO 2011, Nielsen et al. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. R.W. Yamaji A.N.D. This large beetle lays its eggs underneath the bark of the tree, and the larvae burrow through the growing areas (cambium layer) and by preventing the movement and food and water through the tree they soon kill it. The adult bronze birch borer is a slender, flattened, "bullet-shaped" beetle. The legless borer has two brown, pincer-like structures found at the tip of the abdomen. However, planting trees in sites to which they are poorly adapted (e.g., far outside their natural range) could impose physiological stress and predispose them to borer colonization. P.D. Bronze Birch Borer ; May 10, 2000: This time of year in Illinois, European white birch, gray birch, paper birch, and yellow birch trees growing in landscapes are susceptible to bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius, infestations. Godinez This is during the borer flight period and it has been shown that female borers are attracted to fresh pruning wounds. H. Katovich 2011). Saranpaa 2000), bronze birch borer outbreaks are integral components of ecosystem function that alter successional patterns and regulate nutrient cycling (Mattson and Addy 1975). 1991, Nielsen et al. Males have been reported to arrive on host plants before females, where they actively seek and “ambush” females with which they copulate (Barter 1965). Is Fertilome Tree and Shrub Systemic Insect Drench not for Bronze Birch Borers? D.G. 1991, Nielsen et al. Chamorro It is also recommended that dead or dying branches be cut out and incinerated and even that dead trees be destroyed before the emergence of the adults in the spring to limit the spread of the insect. Because mean temperatures are projected to increase globally and rainfall patterns also are predicted to change, resulting in reduced rainfall in some regions (IPCC 2007), global climate change has been predicted to affect the distribution of birch species (Pastor and Post 1988, Overpeck et al. 1993) that are thought to have compromised host resistance (Anderson 1944, Barter 1957, Carlson and Knight 1969). Rhododendrol and susceptibility to the bronze birch borer, Progress in the development of borer-resistant white-barked birches, Comparisons of recent declines of white ash, oaks and sugar maple in northeastern woodlands, Multiple-year protection of ash trees from emerald ash borer with a single trunk injection of emamectin benzoate, and single-year protection with an imidacloprid basal drench, Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid, Past and future climate change: response by mixed deciduous-coniferous forest ecosystems in northern Michigan, Guide to insect borers in North American broadleaf trees and shrubs, U.S, A study of organic factors concerned in the decadence of birch on cut-over lands in northern New England, Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation, A new forest insect enemy of the white birch, Does lignin modification affect feeding preference or growth performance of insect herbivores in transgenic silver birch (, [UA CES] University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, [USDA APHIS] United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, The proposed release of three parasitoids for the biological control of the emerald ash borer (, Distributional, biological and taxonomic notes on North American Buprestidae (Coleoptera), [WI DNR] Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. E.J. Most flatheaded borers have ... Chrysobothris femorata The flatheaded appletree borer feeds on an extremely . Evans J. However, Agrilus betulanigrae MacRae, which is morphologically very similar to bronze birch borer, has been observed to colonize dead branches of river birch in Missouri (MacRae 2003). Twolined chestnut borer [A. bilineatus (Weber)] outbreaks in oak (Quercus spp.) Periodic outbreaks of this borer have led to widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) However, in Pennsylvania, egg parasitism was only 7%, but larval parasitism was 18% and woodpecker predation of overwintering larvae was 60% (Loerch and Cameron 1983b). Damage to susceptible species of birch trees can be severe, often deadly. Publication 1861/E. There are conflicting descriptions of the pattern of colonization of birch by bronze birch borer. Bronze birch borer generally is considered a secondary, opportunistic colonizer of trees that first have been weakened by another biotic or abiotic stress (Spaulding and MacAloney 1931, Anderson 1944, Hawboldt 1947, Carlson and Knight 1969). (Fisher 1929, Balch and Prebble 1940, Barter and Brown 1949, Carlson and Knight 1969). Ball However, the role of positive density dependence in bronze birch borer population dynamics is a hypothesis that requires further testing. Birch Leafminer d.) Soil pH preference of 5.0-7.5 → so nothing above or below that range. Dedicated to Tree Preservation in the Urban Forest : or call (970) 484-3084: or call (970) 484-3084: 2011), vertical colonization of the stem was random (Loerch and Cameron 1984). North Central Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service/U.S. The female deposits her eggs under cracks and crevices of the bark. D.R. Thompson Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, A destructive borer enemy of birch trees, with notes on related species, Growth and climate in relation to dieback of yellow birch, Insects that feed on Colorado trees and shrubs. Grows well over a range of soil pH from acid to alkaline. No pheromones have been reported from bronze birch borer and mate location is not well understood but is thought to be facilitated by host selection (Barter 1957, Akers and Nielsen 1992). In addition, Ball and Simmons (1980) found that larvae successfully colonized the main stem rather than branches first, but it is not evident if this pattern occurred in all birch species or just in the highly susceptible European white birch. T.M. trees can also be affected. F.-R. Bryant The bronze birch borer has not been found in the UK. 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